How to cite this article:
Sabbagh HJ, Alghamdi DS, Almutairi WM, Alshahrani SA, Alghamdi AS. Knowledge and Practices for Early Childhood Caries Prevention among Parents of the Children Visiting King Abdulaziz University Pediatric Dental Clinics, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):53-58.
Aim: Children\'s oral health maintenance is influenced by their parents’ knowledge and behaviors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practices among parents for prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) in children. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study interviewed the parents visiting the Pediatric Dental Clinic in King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD), from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. The questionnaire was drafted based on the recommendations on strategies for ECC prevention by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry in 2018. Results: Of the 549 parents, 283 responded. The mean knowledge score for caries prevention was 2.29 (standard deviation = 1.26) out of 10. In addition, 13.8% of participants scored zero. Knowledge questions that showed the highest correct responses were those associated with fluoride application. However, only 96 (24.4%) participants were aware of fissure sealants, 48 (17%) participants knew that fissure sealants are applied to sound teeth, 35 (12.4%) participants knew the correct age of the first dental visit, and 157 (55.5%) participants practiced snacking between meals. Mothers showed significantly higher mean knowledge score compared with fathers (p < 0.001). In addition, the number of dental visits significantly correlated with the mean parental knowledge score (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Parental dental knowledge and practices were not satisfactory. Anticipatory guidance should be reinforced by oral healthcare providers on each dental visit. In addition, pediatricians and physicians could be involved in improving parental dental knowledge. Clinical significance: This study reported the level of knowledge and awareness of parents visiting the Pediatric Dental Clinic in KAUFD. It could be used as a reference for future community services and caries prevention programs conducted by oral healthcare services for children to prevent ECC.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the mean anterior dentoalveolar dimensions of the Yemeni population, identifying possible gender differences and comparing maxillary and mandibular anterior dentoalveolar sizes across short-, average- and long-face groups. Materials and methods: This study comprised of taking cephalometric radiographs of 82 subjects (42 male, 40 female) with a mean age of 21.9 ± 2.8 years. The sample was divided into three groups: short-face group: FMA <25°; average-face group: FMA ≥25° to <30°, and long-face group: FMA ≥30°. Eight angular and seven linear measurements were taken and compared between the groups. Results: Significant gender differences between men and women were found in the mandibular dentoalveolar dimensions. In the short-face group, the maxillary upper dentoalveolar length and height was lower than the average-face group. Additionally, the ANB angle was the most pronounced parameter to be correlated with the anterior dentoalveolar dimensions, followed by FMA angle. Conclusion: The results of this study could act as a useful clinical instrument for orthodontic practice in Yemen. Understanding the association between sagittal and vertical relations with anterior dentoalveolar dimensions is essential in achieving optimal anteroposterior orthodontic tooth movement in cases with different sagittal and vertical jaw relationships.
Ruchanee S Ampornaramveth
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Chantarothorn K, Narongchai N, Trairattanapa A, Wongwiriya C, Ampornaramveth RS. Inclusion of Cotton Fabric in a Package of Metal Instruments Retained Intrapackage Humidity after Steam Sterilization. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):64-67.
Aim: Packages that are wet after steam sterilization are identified as a failure in the sterilization process. The objective was to investigate whether different fabric loads and packaging materials affect temperature and humidity inside the packages after steam sterilization. Materials and methods: Four groups of instrument packages containing either metal instruments alone or various types of fabric load (cotton, towel, or a combination) were prepared with three different packaging materials (cotton fabric, nonwoven material, or paper-film). The packages were then subjected to a full cycle steam sterilization at 121°C for 20 minutes. Percent humidity and temperature were determined immediately after removal of the package from the sterilizing chamber, and after every 15 minutes to 1 hour. Results: The presence of any fabric inside the packages significantly increased intrapackage humidity immediately after removal from the sterilizing chamber. Intrapackage humidity dropped sharply in the packages containing metal alone or towel. The presence of cotton fabric inside the packages retained higher intrapackage humidity at every time point. The packages with metal alone had a significantly lower temperature compared with the other three groups when measured immediately. Intrapackage temperature gradually decreased in time. There was no difference in temperature between the groups from 15 minutes. The packages wrapped in cotton fabric significantly retained immediate intrapackage humidity compared with nonwoven materials or paper-film pouch. Conclusion: Packages containing cotton fabric retained intrapackage humidity; and this may cause sterilization failure. Clinical significance: Our data provided evidence to support that cotton fabric should not be included in the package of metal instruments for steam sterilization in routine dental instrument processing protocols.
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Majorana A, Cavazzana E, Conti G, Veneri F, Bardellini E. Influence of Oral Hygiene after Orthodontic Appliance Removal in Children Candidates to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A 10 Years’ Experience. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):68-71.
Objective: This cohort study aims to evaluate the impact of oral appliance removal on oral hygiene grade in children candidates to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) over a 10-year period. Materials and methods: The following data from 213 medical records of children candidates to HSCT for newly diagnosed hemato-oncologic diseases were collected: age, type of hemato-oncologic disease, presence of removable or fixed orthodontic appliance, debonding protocol, simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) before debonding (T0) and after 7 days (T1). Results: Out of 213 children candidates to HSCT, 44 patients (16.9%) wore an orthodontic device, in detail: 8 children wore a mobile appliance and 36 a fixed one. The removal of the fixed appliance was requested in six cases before performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and in 30 cases before the conditioning. All the children underwent the same oral hygiene protocol after removing the fixed appliance. The OHI-S resulted significantly lower 7 days after the debonding procedure. Conclusion: The removal of the orthodontic appliance before HSCT increases the oral hygiene grade of the children candidates to transplantation. A correct protocol must be followed in order to respect the hard and soft tissues. Clinical significance: Orthodontic appliance removal before HSCT in children is recommended to ameliorate the oral hygiene grade of the patients, in addition, to prevent any form of traumatism on the oral mucosa.
Maheen N Shaikh,
Mihir N Jha,
Maryam I Undre,
Taufique N Shaikh
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic successes for pulpotomy using formocresol (FC), and diode laser (DL) in primary molars. Materials and methods: Children within the age group of 4–8 years, with a total of 40 teeth, were selected for the study. They were divided into two groups of 20 each in FC and DL, and were restored with prefabricated crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were done at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months using modified Zurn and Seale criteria. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: On comparison of clinical and radiographic scores of all two groups at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months interval, Chi-square value and p value were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: Although the radiographic difference between the two groups is not statistically significant, clinically DL offers higher success rate as compared to others. Further studies need to be carried out with larger sample and a longer follow-up period.
Shaimaa H Dawood,
Mohamed M Kandil,
Dalia I El-Korashy
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Dawood SH, Kandil MM, El-Korashy DI. Effect of Aging on Compressive Strength, Fluoride Release, Water Sorption, and Solubility of Ceramic-reinforced Glass Ionomers: An In Vitro Study. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):78-84.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on compressive strength; fluoride release; water sorption; and solubility of ceramic-reinforced (amalgomer CR), resin-modified (Fuji VIII), and high-viscosity (Equia fill) glass ionomers. Materials and methods: A total of 141 specimens were prepared, 47 for each restorative material. For compressive strength testing, cylindrical specimens (4 mm diameter and 6 mm thickness) were prepared and tested after 24 hours and 6 months of storage in deionized water (n = 10). Disk-shaped specimens with 6 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness were prepared for fluoride release (n = 7) and measured at 24, 48 hours, 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months. Disk-shaped specimens (15 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were prepared for water sorption and solubility testing and measured at 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months (n = 5). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Amalgomer CR and Fuji VIII showed the highest compressive strength, whereas Equia fill showed the lowest value after 24 hours. After 6 months of aging, the compressive strength of amalgomer CR was significantly decreased. Amalgomer CR showed the highest initial fluoride release followed by Fuji VIII and Equia fill. Equia fill showed the least amount of water sorption and solubility followed by Fuji VIII and amalgomer CR. Significance: Zirconia fillers enhanced the properties of glass ionomer; however, this improvement was dramatically reduced with water aging.
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Rathod PB, Bhoosreddy A, Bhadage C, Bramhe P, Chaudhari P, Giri P. Salivary Analytes in Patients of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and their Role in Early Detection of Oral Cancer: A Cross-sectional Study. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):85-88.
Background: The comprehensive salivary analysis had revealed an overall altered salivary composition in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) indicating a compromised oral environment in OSCC and suggesting salivary analysis as a new diagnostic tool for oral cancer. The mechanism behind these alterations is unknown; however, previous studies hypothesized that the tissue-abusive habits present in these patients contribute to saliva alterations. Objectives: Thus, the present study aims to find how far this hypothesis stands true. In addition, the present study also aims to find whether these same salivary analytes are altered in oral potentially malignant disorders (oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis) and in case of positive results, these salivary analytes detected in precancerous stage could prove of great significance for early detection of OSCC. Materials and methods: Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 15 patients with tissue-abusive habits and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and 15 otherwise healthy individuals with tissue-abusive habits but without lesions and subjected to flame photometry for estimation of levels of Na, K, and Ca. Results: It revealed elevated levels of Na and Ca and lower concentration of K in OPMD patients compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion: We conclude that an altered level of salivary analytes in OPMD similar to that found in OSCC is suggestive of saliva as an emerging diagnostic tool.
Vanessa KS Schenck,
Tatiana S Gonçalves,
Bruno N Barbo,
Eduardo M de Lima
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Schenck VK, Gonçalves TS, Barbo BN, de Lima EM. Conservative Orthodontic Retreatment in a Patient with Class III Malocclusion and Root Resorption in Maxillary Teeth. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):89-94.
Aim: To report a conservative orthodontic retreatment in a 23-year-old woman with class III malocclusion and root resorption in maxillary teeth. Background/case description: The patient was diagnosed with Angle class III subdivision malocclusion with edge-to-edge incisor bite and mild crowding of the lower anterior teeth. Treatment consisted of the use of miniplates as skeletal anchorage for distalization of mandibular teeth and no intervention in the maxilla. At debonding, the patient showed attractive dentofacial esthetics and a functional occlusion. Class I canine and molar relationship was obtained, with normal overjet and overbite. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated a retraction of the mandibular incisors and a distalization of the mandibular first molars (3 mm). One-year follow-up records exhibited stability of the treatment outcomes in the short term. Conclusion: Conservative orthodontic retreatment of a class III malocclusion associated with severe resorption of maxillary incisors was accomplished successfully using miniplates in the mandible and no appliance in the maxilla.
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Behnaz M, Dalaie K, Seyedsalehi S, Shekarian S. Cephalometric Assessment of Changes in Vertical Facial Height Following Extraction of Mandibular Second Premolars in Adult Long-face Patients with Skeletal Open Bite: A Case Series. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (2):95-100.
Aim: Anterior open bite has a multifactorial etiology and high tendency to relapse. Thus, treatment of this malocclusion is challenging. Tooth extraction has been proposed by some researchers for correction of skeletal anterior open bite. This study aimed to assess cephalometric changes of vertical facial height in patients with skeletal open bite following extraction of mandibular second premolars. Materials and methods: Thirteen adult patients with a mean age of 24.08 years underwent extraction of second premolars and fixed orthodontic treatment for correction of skeletal anterior open bite. Lateral cephalograms of patients were evaluated at baseline, immediately after treatment and 1 year after treatment. Some cephalometric parameters such as the sum of posterior angles, sella-nasion-mandibular plane (SN-MP), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), upper 1-sella-nasion (U1-SN), incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA), and overbite were measured and compared at different time points. Cephalometric data were analyzed using SPSS via the repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Treatment resulted in positive overbite, which remained stable at 2 years after treatment. The sum of posterior angles, the Jarabak index, SN-MP, LAFH, sella-nasion-B point (SNB), A point-nasion-B point (ANB), U1-SN, and IMPA also showed statistically significant changes (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Open bite closure in patients was mainly due to relative extrusion and retrusion of anterior teeth in both jaws. The results at the 24-month follow-up showed stability of treatment, although longer follow-ups are required to reach a definite judgment. Clinical significance: This treatment can help long-face patients who are not candidate of orthognathic surgery because of complicated systemic conditions or those patients who do not want to have any surgery.