How to cite this article:
Das D, Shinge A, Soman B. Comparison of the Effect of Various Tobacco Habits on the Lipid Profile in a Population of Middle-aged Individuals: A Cross-sectional Analytical Study. J Contemp Dent 2018; 8 (3):115-119.
Background: There is now a worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis being the most common. Mostly the atherosclerotic-related diseases are acquired diseases. Tobacco is the most critical risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases which can be controlled and preventable. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of chronic use of tobacco on the lipid profile of the middle-aged population.
Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of various tobacco habits on the serum lipid profile.
Materials and methods: Patients who attended the outpatient department (OPD) of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology (OMDR), screened randomly for habits of tobacco smoking and chewing, 45 patients were selected who had a habit of smoking and/or chewing tobacco, as a study group and 15 patients with no habits were chosen as the control group. Detailed information was taken regarding the frequency, duration, content of the form of tobacco they used. The patients were subjected to estimation of lipid profile. The values were recorded and statistically analyzed. Comparison of lipid profile and atherosclerotic index between tobacco smokers, tobacco chewers and nonsmokers/chewers were done using appropriate statistical analysis test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: There was a significant increase in the total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherosclerotic index (AI) levels were observed in the tobacco users when we compared with nontobacco users. However, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) which is good cholesterol has a high level in nonusers compared to tobacco users
Conclusion: Increased levels of TC and LDL are the risk factors in the developing coronary heart disease. As tobacco is the known risk factor for atherosclerosis, extensive awareness is essential and can save the lives of many.
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Sharma N, Oberoi SS. A Cross-sectional Study to Evaluate the Periodontal Health Status of Construction Workers with and without Tobacco Habits in New Delhi, India. J Contemp Dent 2018; 8 (3):120-124.
Background: Major constituent of the lower socioeconomic group is comprised of the construction working population. The neglected oral hygiene is evident by the ill oral and its systemic effects often observed in these strata of society. Thus the present study was planned and executed to evaluate the periodontal status in the low socioeconomic strata.
Materials and methods: A total of 154 subjects aged between 15 years and 60 years were examined. The community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN) using the CPITN probe and a mouth mirror was used to record the periodontal status. The post-hoc analysis for inter-group comparison of the CPI and loss of attachment (LOA) scores among different age groups was done using the Tukey post-hoc test.
Results: Different age group showed a significant difference in CPI and LOA scores. The mean LOA score 0 was found to be significantly (p value <0.05) more among Never smokers whereas the mean LOA score 1 was found to be significantly (p value <0.05) more among present smokers.
Conclusion: Non-users, smoked tobacco users, smokeless tobacco users, and both smoked and smokeless tobacco users showed a significant difference (p value <0.05) in the mean CPI score and LOA scores (p value <0.05).
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Mhatre A, Daga P, Joshi D, Ravindranath V, Karandikar GR, Patni VJ, Namdhari A, Madhaswar A. Comparative Evaluation of Enamel Micro-cracks Observed before Bonding and after Debonding of Various Types of Ceramic Brackets: A SEM Study. J Contemp Dent 2018; 8 (3):125-134.
Introduction: Enamel integrity gets affected by the presence of micro-cracks in it and they can further create problems like stains and the accumulation of plaque on the fractured surfaces. Avoiding such iatrogenic damage to the enamel surface has been a constant challenge even with the use of metal brackets. Creating a fracture line in the base of the bracket leads to the formation of a ‘weak zone\'. This allows the bracket to collapse in a mesiodistal direction when debonding forces are applied rather than shattering the bracket into tiny multiple pieces. Thus, removal of the bracket having such a ‘weak zone\' created by making a groove in it before bracket removal arguably leaves the major amount of resin on the tooth and therefore causes less stress on enamel. This study plans to evaluate the expected beneficial effect of ‘scoring’ the base of the ceramic bracket before bracket removal.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the occurrence of micro-cracks in enamel observed before bonding and after debonding of various types of ceramic brackets.
Results: The difference between scored monocrystalline ceramic brackets and unscored monocrystalline ceramic brackets of both the AO and Ormco groups is not significant statistically (p = 0.096). There is a significant difference in scoring of ARI and enamel micro-cracks development. The difference of length and width between the groups (A and B) is statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: Post debonding, there was no difference significantly in the length or width of enamel micro-cracks between AO monocrystalline ceramic brackets (group A) and Ormco monocrystalline ceramic brackets (group B).
India has the third highest number of estimated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world. The current moral panic about HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the theories of deviance that go with it are not a new phenomenon. People expect dental students to know all about HIV/AIDS, but many experience the same fear and ignorance as the public. There is a need to cultivate non judgmental attitude towards the care of people infected with HIV/AIDS. This requires systematic and sensitive educational program. Recent trends have emphasized the use of interprofessional education (IPE) as a very effective tool to overcome such barriers in delivering optimal health care to these patients. The present article reflects the current scenario of the patients living with HIV and the stigma associated with it. We attempt to propose an IPE module to overcome the same.
Lichen planus is an autoimmune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, but studies have reported the role of cytotoxic T cells responsible for the disruption of basal keratinocytes and also causing the clinical symptoms. It is commonly seen in adults, with rare occurrence in children. It clinically manifests on the skin and oral mucosa, with skin lesions healing faster than the oral lesions. To obtain a diagnosis, a complete history and characteristic clinical features are usually sufficient for diagnosis, but there are certain other lesions like lichenoid reaction, contact sensitivity, white sponge nevus, pemphigoid and lupus erythematosus that show similar clinical characteristics, hence the need for histopathological evaluation using standard criteria given by Krutchkoff or World Health Organization (WHO). The treatment administered is always for eliminating symptoms and discomfort of the patients. A variety of pharmacological and natural alternatives have been used, along with frequent follow up visits in case of a tropic and erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this paper is to review the current trends in the management of oral lichen planus.
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Panda S, Gupta M. Delayed Eruption due to Concurrent Occurrence of Compound Odontoma and Supernumerary Tooth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: A Rare Case Report. J Contemp Dent 2018; 8 (3):144-147.
Frequently seen benign odontogenic tumors are the odontomas which consists of dental tissue. They are regularly asymptomatic but can cause troubles in the teeth eruption manifesting clinically as late eruption or deflection. They are identified due to retained primary teeth or on routine radiographic examination. Supernumerary teeth are in addition to the normal complement. These teeth usually have the normal shape. Odontomas and supernumerary teeth are categorized as separate entities. However, possibly they have the expression of the similar pathologic process, which might be due to a malformation or a hamartoma.
This paper describes an uncommon case of retained primary teeth because of the presence of compound odontoma as well as supernumerary teeth in the anterior maxillary region of a 10-year-old boy. Surgical intervention was achieved to remove the compound odontoma and the supernumerary tooth. The permanent incisors erupted favorably after one and a half years. This case also highlights the need of early finding of odontogenic anomalies that enables a less complex treatment; and better prognosis for the patient.
Overdenture can be said to be the best example of preventive dentistry. When the clinical situation dictates 2 or 3 teeth (particularly canine and premolars) present on either side of the arch, particularly resorbed mandibular ridge, then Telescopic overdenture is considered to be the best option because it not only induces sufficient frictional retention but also helps the patient in easy placement and removal of the denture from the mouth. The main advantage of telescopic overdenture is that it transfers the forces along the long axis of the abutment teeth. This clinical case report describes a technique for telescopic overdenture. The telescopic design consists of 2 copings. The first coping is called primary coping was cemented onto the prepared abutment teeth. The primary coping is modified at the proximal cervical area by creating the frictional retention form in the form of grooves. The secondary coping, i.e. part of the metal framework engages the primary coping and subsequently generates the frictional retention at the proximo-cervical area. This design is technique sensitive, but aids in better retention, stability, support and proprioception which increases chewing efficiency and phonetics.
Epidermoid and dermoid cysts of the skin are commonly encountered in surgical practice. Epidermoid cysts and dermoid cysts are uncommon developmental and acquired cystic malformations. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts occur less frequently in the head and neck region. These cysts constitute for 1.6 to 6.9% of all cysts in the head and neck area. However, the intraoral epidermoid and dermoid cysts are very rare and account for less than 0.01% of all cysts in the oral cavity. Here we present a series of five cases of dermoid and epidermoid cysts. The study was carried out on histopathologically diagnosed cases of epidermoid cysts and dermoid cysts were retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology from a period of 2015 to 2018. Four cases of epidermoid cysts and one case of dermoid cyst were reported. This article mentions the distinguishing histopathological features of these two cysts which help the surgeon to carry out a definitive treatment protocol.
Digitalization in implant dentistry has made restoring of missing teeth more predictable and accurate. A clinical advantage with flapless guided surgery is that the technique is likely to decrease pain and discomfort in the immediate postoperative period. This technology has improved the 3-dimensional (3D) accuracy of implant placement and the patient comfort and time. This article presents three guided implant surgeries in different scenarios so that the wide prospect and advantages of this technology can be emphasized.
Oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a slow growing, soft tissue premalignant lesion which can transform into oral cancer. Areca-nut and quid use do seem to have a significant influence on the appearance of oral verrucous hyperplasia. Most frequently observed sites are buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. OVH begins as a white plaque of hyperkeratosis known as plaque type variant which can get further transformed into mass type with less keratinization, exophytic growth and proliferative features thus leading to malignant transformation and poorer prognosis. This article describes series of cases which have been diagnosed histopathologically as verrucous hyperplasia with its clinical presentation and histopathological variants along with the criteria elaborated by different authors in establishing a diagnosis and a brief overview of the treatment modalities.