Introduction: Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious. The decision to go for an orthodontic treatment is influenced by the desire to look attractive, to overcome social pressure, and to enhance self-esteem. The aim of the present survey was to assess the awareness of orthodontics in MGM Campus, Navi Mumbai.
Materials and methods: This study was carried out through an online questionnaire of 22 questions which was distributed through various channels, such as personal e-mails and communication through the phone to students of MGM Campus, Navi Mumbai fitting the inclusion criteria. The sample size of 285 represented a population of students in the age group of 18–24 years. The questionnaire was made accessible to the participants for 2 months.
Results: Results showed that nearly 78% of the subjects had visited a dentist before while 40% were unaware of the role of an orthodontist, indicating a general lack of awareness of the difference between a general dentist and an orthodontist. The majority of the subjects were able to notice people with irregular teeth around them and 79.6% of the subjects noticed improper positioning of their teeth by themselves, thus indicating that people were conscious about the crowding seen within their dentition. More than 80% of the subjects believed that maintaining oral hygiene is difficult with the presence of crowded teeth, oral habits can have deleterious effects on teeth, and for an esthetic facial appearance, teeth should be well aligned. Nearly 50% of the participants were simply unaware that orthodontic treatment could be performed after the age of 40 years as well. Majority were aware of the various types of braces and >60% of the subjects knew that ceramic and lingual braces are more expensive as compared to traditional metal braces. A lack of awareness about invisible braces options was seen in >60% of the participants. Diet restrictions for better orthodontic results were known to majority of the participants. Nearly 90% of the subjects knew that special care has to be taken of oral hygiene during the orthodontic treatment. Extraction protocol for better treatment results and disadvantages, such as pain and ulcerations, either was known to >80% of the subjects. More than 70% were aware that orthodontic treatment is usually of longer duration as compared to other types of dental treatment. Nearly 46% of the subjects were unaware of the frequency of orthodontic appointments. Only 66% knew that it is necessary to wear retainers after the completion of treatment. More than 50% felt that self-consciousness would majorly influence their decision to go for orthodontic treatment. Nearly 60% felt that social life is not adversely affected by braces.
Conclusion: There was less awareness in young adults, about various orthodontic treatment options and in general about orthodontic treatment, hence there is a need to create awareness about the same, which will help us provide a better quality of treatment.
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Cigerim L, Cigerim SC. Evaluation of the Relationship between Alexithymia and Dental Fear in Individuals Undergoing Tooth Extraction for Orthodontic Reasons. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):109-112.
Aim and objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the alexithymia and dental fear levels and to reveal the relationship between alexithymia and dental fear of healthy individuals undergoing tooth extraction for orthodontic reasons.
Materials and methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2019 and December 2019 in orthodontic patients who had their teeth extracted in Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Dentistry, Oral, Maxillofacial Surgery and Orthodontics Department and a private dental clinic in Van province. Questionnaires consisted of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, which determines the level of alexithymia and the Dental Fear Scale, which measures dental fear levels were performed 1 week after the tooth extractions.
Results: Of the 260 individuals included in the study, 180 were female and 80 were male. The age of individuals ranged from 11 to 41, and the mean age was 19.97 ± 5.82. There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of alexithymia in individuals by age and gender (p value > 0.05). The levels of dental fear and alexithymia of individuals do not differ statistically according to the place of treatment (p value > 0.05). The positive relationship between individuals’ dental fear and alexithymia levels was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.239, p value < 0.01).
Conclusion: In this study, it was revealed that when individuals’ level of dental fear increased, the level of alexithymia increased.
Clinical significance: The presence of alexithymia should be investigated in individuals who are considered to have difficulty in cooperating because of dental fear in the clinic. Both dental fears and alexithymies of individuals should be handled separately before dental treatment.
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Bhave P, Nadgere J, Ram S, Iyer J. Prevalence of the Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders among Dental Students in Navi Mumbai. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):113-116.
Aim and objective: To determine the prevalence of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among dental students in Navi Mumbai.
Materials and methods: A representative population-based sample of 500 dental students was evaluated for the signs and symptoms of TMD by means of a validated questionnaire. A detailed case history was taken, and the examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), mandibular movements, muscles and occlusion was done for each participant.
Results: The signs and symptoms of TMD are frequent among dental students. Out of 500 students, who filled the questionnaire and underwent examination, 250 were females and 250 were males. In total, 22% of the study population had at least one symptom of TMD. In total, 51% of the study population had at least one sign of TMD. The prevalence of the signs and symptom of TMD was significantly higher in females than in males.
Conclusion: The study showed that about 29% of the study population had at least one sign without any symptoms of TMD. This highlights the presence of subclinical cases that exist in the population that can be intervened to prevent their progression into TMD.
Clinical significance: Extra emphasis should be given on the determination of the predisposing, initiating and causative factors of TMD along with the examination. Prevention and treatment at an early stage will prevent the progression of TMD.
Rajesh S Kashyap,
Maiya A Kumar,
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Pooja M, Kashyap RS, Hegde S, Kumar MA, Boloor V. Comparison of Effectiveness of Diode Laser as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing and Scaling, Root Planing Alone in Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis—A Randomized Split-mouth Clinical Study. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):117-123.
Aim and objective: To compare the clinical effects of diode laser (DL) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) and SRP alone in the treatment of subjects with chronic periodontitis.
Materials and methods: Thirty subjects aged 25–54 years participated in this randomized split-mouth clinical study. All subjects with 60 selected sites were randomly divided into 2 equal groups depending on the treatment provided. Group I (control site): only SRP was performed at baseline and group II (test site): SRP along with DL irradiation was performed on day 7, 14, and 21. Clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding index (BI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline and the end of 3 months for both groups.
Results: Mean values of PPD from baseline to 3 months between groups I and II on the mesial and distal aspect showed a high statistically significant difference (p < 0.02). Mean values of CAL from baseline to 3 months between two groups on distal and buccal aspect showed high statistically significant difference (p < 0.02). On intragroup comparison, there was a decrease in a mean difference of PI, GI, and BI individually for both the groups from baseline to 3 months with (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The adjunctive use of 810 nm DL with SRP provides moderate additional clinical benefit in moderate periodontal pockets 4–6 mm.
Clinical significance: This study signifies that using noninvasive laser therapy, potential clinical benefits can be obtained in terms of reduction of periodontal parameters.
Priyadarshani R Sarkate,
Rashmi H Hosalkar,
Nikita K Sahu
Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, although other Candida species can also cause candidiasis. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) have commonly been associated with these. In recent times, however, there has been a notable shift in the incidence of non-Candida albicans (NCA) species which is gaining prominence due to significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Studies showed that C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were the most common NCA species isolated in OLP. Treatment failure is common among NCA species in OLP due to its intrinsic resistant or low susceptibility to commonly used antifungal agents. This article reviews the role of Candida species in etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OLP.
Nikita K Sahu,
Rashmi M Hosalkar,
Priyadarshani R Sarkate
Ethnologic identification is one of the major demanding subjects to facilitate human has been encountered with. The forensic magnitude of the dental tissue has been well predictable since teeth are hardest of all human tissues and they can be conserved undamaged for an extensive episode of instance following fatality. They are constant chemically and they retain their characteristics, which becomes a consistent source for determination of human identification. The study of the dental hard and soft tissue for the rationale of establishing the individuality of a victim is called dental profiling. By using the dental profiling techniques, age, gender, and race of an individual can be determined, as well as the data about their socioeconomic status, personal habits, oral and systemic health, occupation, diet, familial relationship, and psychological characteristics. A dental profile is more detailed and reliable if more than one technique is applied. Each human being possesses a unique dental profile that helps them in identification. Education in the field of forensic odontology and techniques of dental profiling is essential since it contributes significantly to the status of the dental profession in additional associated disciplines as well as in public, and it encourages dentists to view their own achievements from a wider perspective. Through the ages, odontological examinations have been a critical determinant in the search of human identity. This piece of review writing gives an overview of the dental evidence and its use in forensic identification.
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Nellipunath AS, Aghanashini S, Mallikarjunappa AS, Mundinamane DB, Nadiger S, Bhat D. Nutrigenomics: Understanding the Role of Nutrients and Gene Interactions in Periodontal Disease. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):135-140.
Periodontal disease is a progressive inflammatory process, involving periodic destruction of periodontal attachment apparatus and loss of structures of the apparatus, essentially gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone, ultimately resulting in loss of tooth in most susceptible patients.1 Advanced knowledge on the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction and the role of nutrients on it, has increased the interest to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and nutrition.2 It is also essential to know that periodontal disease risk is determined by genotype and dietary interactions.3 Nutrients that play an important role in inflammatory and immune responses can in turn regulate and modulate periodontal health.4 Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics, which uses genomic tools in nutritional research to focus on the identification and understanding of the molecular-level interaction between nutrients and genomes.3 It provides information on the influence of nutrition on the metabolic pathways and homeostatic control and also allows us to know the disturbances arising in this regulation, at an early stage.5 This literature review provides a detailed description of the role of nutrition in periodontal disease and recommends the daily nutritional intake necessary for the prevention of periodontal disease.3
Pradeep P Vathare,
Saloni B Shah
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common cancer, with a higher incidence than all other malignancies combined. Although it is rare to metastasize, patients with multiple or frequently recurring BCC can suffer substantial co-morbidity and be difficult to manage. The medial canthal region is a common site for tumors, particularly basal cell carcinoma.
Case description: Surgical approaches often offer the most effective and efficient. Medial canthal reconstruction following skin cancer excision presents a challenge to the surgeon because of the complex anatomy and the difficulty in obtaining tissue of the appropriate color and thickness. There are several options available for reconstruction of the medial canthal region including healing by secondary intention, full-thickness skin grafts, and local or regional flaps. Skin grafting can provide well contoured and esthetically acceptable results. Skin graft can be harvested from upper and lower eyelid, retro auricular, supraclavicular and preauricular region. We reconstructed medial canthal defect using graft from preauricular region as patient was old with enough lax skin and wrinkles on face.
Conclusion: Various skin graft techniques can be used for reconstruction of large superficial defects that involve medial canthal area. But preauricular skin graft is a useful technique that has good cosmesis and minimal postoperative complications.
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Divakar RR, Parameswaran R, Jayapal J, Vijayalakshmi D. “Surgery-first Orthognathic Approach” for Correction of Skeletal Class III with Open Bite. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):144-149.
Introduction: This case report illustrates the treatment of a skeletal class III patient with the surgery-first orthognathic approach (SFOA) protocol.
Background: “Surgery-first orthognathic approach” is a growing trend that provides an immediate facial change. The SFOA protocol utilizes dentoalveolar compensation as the key advantage to effect immediate facial change, which in conjunction with the rapid acceleratory phenomenon (RAP) augments the intended tooth movement, thereby reducing the total treatment duration.
Case description: A 24-year-old male presented with forwardly placed lower jaw with associated difficulty during eating. Clinical examination revealed severe lip incompetency, mandibular excess, class III skeletal malocclusion, severe bimaxillary incisor proclination, posterior crossbite, and lower midline shift toward right on an average mandibular plane angle.
Conclusion: The SFOA protocol involving bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) mandibular setback along with the correction of the pitch and yaw was performed and the orthodontic phase was followed.
Clinical significance: The total treatment time was 5 months and 15 days, following which excellent facial transformation and stable occlusion was achieved.
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Sevekar S, Avanti A, Jha MN, Mistry L, Patel V, Hirave S. Primary Zirconia Crowns: An Era of Esthetic Management in Early Childhood Caries Affected Children. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):150-154.
Aim and objective: To report the case series of zirconia crown rehabilitation in grossly carious primary teeth.
Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) pose restorative as well as esthetic concerns. Multiple options for extracoronal restorations like stainless steel crown, polycarbonate crown, and strip crown are presently available. Recently, the zirconia crown has become a good alternative due to its excellent esthetic quality, greater strength, and ease of placement.
Case description: This case report presents a series of grossly carious primary maxillary incisors and mandibular molars restored with preformed zirconia crowns. The treatment describes a simple and effective means of restoration of grossly carious primary teeth.
Conclusion: Zirconia crowns are simple and effective means in the rehabilitation of grossly carious, badly broken down, and fractured primary anterior and posterior teeth.
Naama WA Sousa,
Antonia TL de Moraes,
Douglas M Guimarães,
Ana PG Rodrigues Couto,
Lucas R Pinheiro,
João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro,
André LR Ribeiro
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Sousa NW, de Moraes AT, Guimarães DM, Couto AP, Pinheiro LR, Pinheiro JD, Ribeiro AL. Persistent Oral Infection Caused by an Iatrogenic Displacement of a Lower Third Molar Root to the Sublingual Space. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):155-158.
Aim and objective: Describe a case of sublingual displacement of a root of the lower third molar, as well as highlight the importance of using appropriate complementary imaging tests and provide the clinician with information on how to prevent and treat this complication.
Background: The displacement of the lower third molar is an accidental event that can lead to serious complications, which is usually the cause of inadequate surgical technique.
Case description: A 69-year-old man presented pain and trismus due to local infection 1 month after a tooth extraction. After a misdiagnosis of retained root and surgical exploration, a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed a displaced root into the sublingual tissues. A surgical procedure under local anesthesia was carried out to easily remove the displaced tooth root, which resulted in complete healing of soft tissues and disappearance of signs of local infection.
Conclusion: The use of CBCT is essential for the identification and location of the dislocated tooth and the removal of the fragment, as it allows a three-dimensional assessment providing adequate surgical planning which resulted in complete remission of all symptoms.
Clinical significance: Few reports have been published to describe this rare complication of dental extractions that support key points for proper management: (1) the use of three-dimensional imaging for proper evaluation and establishment of exact location; (2) careful surgical planning; (3) precise surgery. Successful tooth removal is the main goal of treatment, which usually results in control of associated signs and symptoms.