Journal of Contemporary Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 9 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Role of Candida Species in Oral Lichen Planus

Priyadarshani R Sarkate, Jigna Pathak, Shilpa Patel, Niharika Swain, Rashmi H Hosalkar, Nikita K Sahu

Keywords : Plaque, Potentially malignant disease,Oral cancer

Citation Information : Sarkate PR, Pathak J, Patel S, Swain N, Hosalkar RH, Sahu NK. Role of Candida Species in Oral Lichen Planus. J Contemp Dent 2019; 9 (3):124-129.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10031-1270

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 25-03-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, although other Candida species can also cause candidiasis. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) have commonly been associated with these. In recent times, however, there has been a notable shift in the incidence of non-Candida albicans (NCA) species which is gaining prominence due to significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Studies showed that C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were the most common NCA species isolated in OLP. Treatment failure is common among NCA species in OLP due to its intrinsic resistant or low susceptibility to commonly used antifungal agents. This article reviews the role of Candida species in etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OLP.

PDF Share
  1. Rajendran R, Sivapathasundaram R. Shafer's textbook of Oral Pathology. 6th ed., Elsevier India; 2009.
  2. Arora S, Verma M, Gupta SR, et al. Phenotypic variability and therapeutic implications of Candida species in patients with oral lichen planus. Biotech Histochemis 2016;91(4):237–241. DOI: 10.3109/10520295.2015.1127425.
  3. Lisa Cheng Y-S, Gould A, Kurago Z, et al. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus. A position paper of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016;122(3):332–354. DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2016.05.004.
  4. Marttila E, Uittamo J, Rusanen P, et al. Acetaldehyde production and microbial colonization in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral lichenoid disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013;116(1):61–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.oooo.2013.02.009.
  5. Simark-Mattsson C, Eklund C. Reduced immune responses to purified protein derivative and Candida albicans in oral lichen planus. J Oral Pathol Med 2013;42(9):691–697. DOI: 10.1111/jop.12069.
  6. Hulimane S, Maluvadi-Krishnappa R, Mulki S, et al. Speciation of Candida using CHROMagar in cases with oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Exp Dent 2018;10(7):e657–e660. DOI: 10.4317/jced.54737.
  7. Turner SA, Butler G. The candida pathogenic species complex. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(9):a019778. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a019778.
  8. Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, et al. Clinical appearance of oral candida infection and therapeutic strategies. Front Microbiol 2015;6:1391. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01391.
  9. Collin B, Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH. Antifungal resistance in non-albicans candida species. Drug Resist Updat 1999;2(1):9–14. DOI: 10.1054/drup.1998.0059.
  10. Shivanandappa SG, Ali IM, Sabarigirinathan C, et al. Candida in oral lichen planus. J Indian Aca Oral Med Radiol 2012;24(3):182–185. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1291.
  11. Lundstrom IMC, Anneroth GB, Holmberg K. Candida in patients with oral lichen planus. Int J Oral Surg 1984;13(3):226–238. DOI: 10.1016/s0300-9785(84)80008-3.
  12. Krogh P, Holmstrup P, Thorn JJ, et al. Yeast species and biotypes associated with oral leukoplakia and lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1987;63(1):48–54. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(87)90339-2.
  13. Hatchuel DA, Peters E, Lemmer J, et al. Candidal infection in oral lichen planus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;70(2):172–175. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(90)90113-7.
  14. Jainkittivong A, Kuvatanasuchati J, Pipattanagovit P, et al. Candida in oral lichen planus patients undergoing steroid therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;104(1):61–66. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.10.024.
  15. Zeng X, Hou X, Wang Z, et al. Carriage rate and virulence attributes of oral Candida albicans isolates from patients with oral lichen planus: a study in an ethnic Chinese cohort. Mycoses 2009;52(2):161–165. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2008.01554.x.
  16. Mehdipour M, Zenouz AT, Hekmatfar S, et al. Prevalence of candida species in erosive oral lichen planus. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect 2010;4(1):14–16. DOI: 10.5681/joddd.2010.004.
  17. Masaki M, Sato T, Sugawara Y, et al. Detection and identification of non-Candida albicans species in human oral lichen planus. Microbiol Immunol 2011;55(1):66–70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2010.00285.x.
  18. Artico G, Freitas RS, Santos Filho AM, et al. Prevalence of Candida spp., xerostomia and hyposalivation in oral lichen planus – a controlled study. Oral Dis 2014;20(3):e36–e41. DOI: 10.1111/odi.12120.
  19. Ebrahimi H, Pakshir K, Pourshahidi S, et al. Prevalence of common candida species in oral lichen planus patients: a cross-sectional study in South of Iran. GMJ 2014;3(4):252–255.
  20. Cannon RD, Chaffin WL. Oral colonization by Candida albicans. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1999;10(3):359–383. DOI: 10.1177/10454411990100030701.
  21. Mayer FL, Wilson D, Hube B. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence 2013;4(2):119–128. DOI: 10.4161/viru. 22913.
  22. Raju SB, Rajappa S. Isolation and identification of Candida from the oral cavity. ISRN Dent 2011;2011:487921.
  23. Deorukhkar SC, Saini S, Mathew S. Non-albicans candida infection: an emerging threat. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2014;2014:615958. DOI: 10.1155/2014/615958.
  24. Roopashree MR, Gondhalekar RV, Shashikanth MC, et al. Pathogenesis of oral lichen planus – a review. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39(10): 729–734. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2010.00946.x.
  25. Rodrigues CF, Rodrigues ME, Henriques MJ. Candida sp. infections in patients with diabetes mellitus. Clin Med 2019;8(1):76. DOI: 10.3390/jcm8010076.
  26. Keten HS, Keten D, Ucer H, et al. Prevalence of oral Candida carriage and Candida species among cigarette and maras powder users. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8(6):9847–9854.
  27. Deorukhar SC, Saini S. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of candidiasis through ages. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2014;3(1): 206–218.
  28. Sudhan SS, Sharma P, Sharma M, et al. Identification of candida species in the clinical laboratory: a review of conventional, commercial and molecular techniques. Int J Med Prof 2016;2(6):1–8. DOI: 10.21276/ijmrp.2016.2.6.001.
  29. Suvarna SK, Layton C, Bancroft JD. Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Technique. 7th ed., Elsevier 2012; pp. 153–175.
  30. Li JY, Sun HY, Zhang QQ. Antifungal susceptibility test of genotypes of Candida albicans from patients with atrophic or erosive oral lichen planus. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2011;20(3):300–303.
  31. Singh M, Chakraborty A. Antifungal drug resistance among candida albicans and non-albicans candida species isolates from a tertiary care centre at Allahabad. J Antimicrob Agents 2017;3:4.
  32. Wiederhold NP. Antifungal resistance: current trends and future strategies to combat. Infect Drug Resist 2017;10:249–259. DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S124918.
  33. Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharmaceut Analy 2016;6(2):71–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpha.2015.11.005.
  34. Kragelund C, Kieffer-Kristensen L, Reibel J, et al. Oral candidosis in lichen planusthe diagnostic approach is of major therapeutic importance. Clin Oral Invest 2013;17(3):957–965. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-012-0757-6.
  35. Shirke KJ, Pathak J, Swain N, et al. Oral lichen planus–A brief review on treatment modalities. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(3):137–143. DOI: 10.5005/jcd-8-3-iv.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.