With pain being the major drawback and reason for patient dropouts in orthodontic treatment, its management becomes an essential part of orthodontics. Patients commonly use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac-sodium, Acetylsalicylic acid, and Celecoxib to alleviate orthodontic pain. However, it has shown that the use of these drugs has a significant effect on the orthodontic movement of teeth.
Arnica montana is an accepted remedy in homeopathic medicine since concentrated extract of Arnica can be toxic, only homeopathic pellets which contain extremely diluted concentration of drug are considered appropriate for ingestion.
Arnica has shown efficiency in treating inflammation and associated pain. It has a wide scope in the field of dentistry and can be used as an alternative to NSAIDs in order to control intra-operative and post-operative pain without hampering orthodontic tooth movement. Arnica 30° C can be used for the treatment of dental pain.
Oliver RG, Knapman YM. Attitudes to orthodontic treatment, British Journal of Orthodontics, 1985;12:179-188.
Goodman and Gilman. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12th ed. California: McGraw Hill; 2011.
Yamasaki K, Miura F, Suda T, Prostaglandin as a mediator of bone resorption induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. J Dent Res.1980; 59:1635-1642.
Sandy JR, Harris M. Prostaglandins and tooth movement. Eur J Orthod. 1984; 6:175-182.
Skinner SE.An introduction to homeopathic medicine in primary care,1st ed. US: Aspen publishers Inc;2000.
Iannitti T, Morales-Medina JC, Bellavite P, Rottigni V, Palmieri B. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation American Journal of Therapeutics: January/February 2016; 23 (1); 184–197.
Fleming P.S, DiBiase A.T, Sarri G, Lee R.T. Pain experience during initial alignment with a self ligating and a conventional fixed orthodontic appliance system. A randomized controlled clinical trial. The Angle Orthodontist 2009;79 (1):46-50.
Lew, K.K. Attitudes and perceptions of adults towards orthodontic treatment in an asian community. Community dent oral epidemiol. 1993;21:31-35.
Jones M, Chan C. The pain and discomfort experienced during orthodontic treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial of two initial aligning arch wires. Am J Orthod dentofacial orthop 1992;102:373-381.
Bos A, Hoogstraten J, Prahl-anderson B. Towards a comprehensive model for the study of compliance in orthodontics. Eur J. Orthod 2005; 27:296-301
Krishnan V. Orthodontic pain: from causes to management— a review, European Journal of Orthodontics 2007; 29(2):170– 179.
Alhashimi N, Frithiof L, Brudvik P, Bakhiet M. Orthodontic movement and de novo synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2001;119:307-312.
Vandevska-Radunovic V. Neural modulation of inflammatory reactions in dental tissues incident to orthodontic tooth movement:a review of the literature. European Journal of Orthodontics1999; 21(3): 231-247.
Bhalajhi S.I, Shetty V.S., The effect of prostaglandin E2 on tooth movement in young rabbits. J. Indian Orthod. Soc 1996; 27:85-92.
Kehoe M.J, Cohen S.M, Zarrinnia K, Cowan A. The effect of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and misoprostol on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Angle Orthod. 1996; 66(5):339-350.
Vane J.R. Introduction: mechanism of action of NSAIDs. British journal of rheumatology 1996;35(suppl. 1):1-3.
de Camargo R.A, da Costa E.D, Catisti R. Effect of the oral administration homeopathic Arnica Montana on mitochondrial oxidative stress. Homeopathy. 2013;102(1): 49-53.
Lawrence T, Gilroy D.W, Colville-Nash P.R, Willoughby D.A. Possible new role for NF-kappaB in the resolution of inflammation. Nat Med 2001;7(12):1291-1297.
Klaas C.A, Wagner G, Laufer S, Sosa S, Della L R, Bomme U et al. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytopharmaceuticals prepared from Arnica flowers. Planta Med. 2002;68(5):385-391.
Verma N, Tripathi S.K, Sahu D, Das H.R, Das R.H. Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages. Mol Cell Biochem 2010;336(1-2):127-135.
Miyawaki S, Yasuhara M, Koh Y. Discomfort Caused by Bonded Lingual Orthodontic Appliances in Adult Patients as Examined by Retrospective Questionnaire. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999;115(1):83-88.
Mazzocchi A, Passi L, Moretti R. Retrospective analysis of 736 implants inserted without antibiotic therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Nov;65(11):2321-2323.
Mazzocchi A.R, Batisti D. Homeopathic therapy during impacted canines treatment. Virtual Journal of Orthodontics [serial online] 2002 November 15;5(1): Available from URL:http://www.vjo.it/051/ome.htm
Maureen Dos Ramos, the efficacy of homeopathic complex in treatment of post operative implications associated with impacted third molar extraction. Homoeopathy Technikon Natal, 2000. url: http://hdl.handle.net/10321/1913
Kehoe MJ, Cohen SM, Zarrinnia K, Cowan A. The effect of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and misoprostol on prostaglandin E2 synthesis and the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The Angle Orthod 1996; 66(5):339- 349.