Current Issue Volume 8, Number 2 , May-August 2018

FROM EDITOR'S DESK

Meditation and Health

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:iv]



In today’s era of competitive challenging and demanding world, stress is an inadvertent part of our lives. Stress adversely affects our health. Though, it is realized that an element of stress encapsulates the motivation which is significantly contributory to meet the challenges however, an increased form of the same may elevate to chronic stress. To combat stress, one of the effective and primitive enablers is meditation. Meditation is an ancient practice which equips to focus the mind on a particular object, activity or thought. It is a natural healing phenomenon which leads to emotional calmness and mentally agile state.


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Jyotirmayee Dalai, HN Subhadra, Vikesh Sisodia

Colors and Flavors: Adding Joy to Pediatric Dentistry–A Cross-sectional Study

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:63-69]



Introduction: Color is one of the most instantaneous methods of conveying messages and meanings. It has been studied widely from philosophical, biological, anthropological and psychological perspectives over the course of time. Recently, the correlation between colors and emotions and their effect on the work settings is being studied. The importance of appropriate use of colors in various hospital settings is studied. Colors need to be incorporated not only in the dental setups but in the armamentarium and material that are going to be in a close vision of the child and are going to be delivered in the mouth.

Aim: To assess the preference of children and parents towards conventional, colored and flavored restorative materials, appliances, and the armamentarium required for it.

Objectives:
• To assess the preference of children in the age group of 6 to 12 years for various colors in restorative materials, appliances, and the armamentarium.
• To assess the preference of parents towards various colors in restorative materials, appliances, and the armamentarium.

Materials and methodology: The study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Yerala Dental College and Hospital, Kharghar, India. Sixty children in the age group of 6 to 12 years reporting to the OPD along with their parents, formed the sample for this study. The preference of children and their parents for the various material, armamentarium, and appliances delivered to a child was evaluated using a study tool. The study tool comprised of a separate questionnaire for the parents and the children. The questionnaire was aided with a power-point presentation. Physical demonstration of material was done wherever flavored materials were being evaluated.

Statistical analysis: Data analysis was done using windows based MedCalcStatistical Software version 13.3.1 (MedCalc Software bvba, Ostend, Belgium; http://www.medcalc.org; 2014).

The following statistics were applied:
• Means: Average age of participants.
• Proportions: Most preferred choice

Results: Children and parents both showed a preference for bright colors in various materials and armamentarium. For materials that were to stay in a child’s mouth for a long time, children still preferred colored material, whereas parents preferred tooth-colored materials. Children had an overall preference for blue color whereas parents preferred pink.

Conclusion: Introduction of more colorful and flavored restorative material as well as appliances are needed, especially for pediatric patients.

Keywords: Colors, Dental appliances, Dental materials, Flavors, Parents, Pediatric dentistry, Preventive dentistry

How to cite this article: Dalai J, Subhadra HN, Sisodia V. Colors and Flavors: Adding Joy to Pediatric Dentistry-A Crosssectional Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):63-69.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None




Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of 0.2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 1% aqueous stabilized chlorine dioxide (ClO2z) mouthrinse as pre-procedural mouthrinses on colony forming unit (CFU) count from aerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling.

Materials and methods: This prospective controlled parallel arm clinical and microbiological study done over a period of 2 months included 60 systemically healthy participants with no signs of gingivitis or periodontitis divided into 3 groups (1 to 3) with 20 participants each receiving CHX, ClO2 and normal saline as control respectively as pre-procedural rinses followed by collection of aerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling on agar plates kept at three positions namely patient (P), operator (O) and assistant (A) and incubated for 24 hours at 37oC. The CFUs were then counted and statistically analyzed.

Results: Data for the inclusion criteria of plaque index (PI) for all 60 subjects (mean 0.5088 ± 09001) presented normal distribution (p = 0.200). The mean and standard deviation values of retrievable CFUs for all three treatment groups 1 to 3 at three positions of P, A and O were performed using one way ANOVA test with intergroup comparison between by Tukey HSD test. Highest reduction in CFUs was seen in CHX group followed by ClO2 followed by normal saline which showed least reduction in CFU counts.

Conclusion: It was concluded that aqueous 0.2% CHX was more efficacious in reducing retrievable CFU counts when compared to aqueous 1% stabilized chlorine dioxide mouthrinse and normal saline when used as pre-procedural mouthrinses.

Limitations: As only aerobic culture was done to assess the CFU counts, anaerobic culture would have added more value to the study as it can influence the retrievable CFU counts. Also, despite of best efforts to standardize the settings in dental operatory, there could be some degree of variability.

Keywords: Aerosols, Chlorhexidine, Chlorine dioxide, Colony forming units, Microbiology, Mouthrinses, Preprocedural rinse, Ultrasonic scaling.

How to cite this article: Waghmare SV, Kini VV, Srivastava S. Title. Comparative Evaluation of Colony Forming Unit Count on Aerobic Culture of Aerosol Collected Following Pre-Procedural Rinses of Either 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate or 1% Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Clinical and Microbiological Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):70-76.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Floyd S Fernandes, Amol C Mhatre, Divij D Joshi, Prateek Daga, Neeraj E Kolge, Swapnagandha R Kate

Asepsis Measures Undertaken by Mumbai Based Orthodontists: A Survey Report

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:77-82]



Introduction: This study aimed to assess and evaluate Mumbai based orthodontists based on recommended (Centre of Disease Control) infection control procedures followed by them in their practice.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire of 24 questions which was sent by personal e-mail and communication through the phone to active orthodontic professionals in Mumbai (n = approximately 300) from January to February, 2018. The questionnaire was accessible for 2 months. The data generated were collected and analyzed.

Results: The results showed that 50.9% of respondents sterilized their instruments at the end of each day and 66.7% used a steam sterilizer. Twenty point three percent sterilized their instruments between patients and 56.4% used heat/self-sealed pouches to package instruments. Twenty-four point four percent stored them in a sterilized environment and 25.6% ran equipment maintenance every month. Eighty-two point two percent sterilized tried-in preformed molar bands before putting them back in storage and only 36.2% used steam sterilization for the same. Twentyseven point five percent placed the bands in an ultrasonic cleaner before sterilization. Sixty six point five percent used pre-determined lengths of elastomeric chain. Ninety-two point two percent used pre-determined lengths of ligature wire. Twenty-nine point seven percent disinfected alginate impressions. Fifty-three point two percent used a plastic barrier on the dental chair’s light handle while only 24.3% used a barrier around the anesthetic spray canister. Seventy five point nine percent followed standard hand scrub protocol between patients. Thirty-one point four percent had their offices fumigated on a regular basis. Fourteen point nine percent had sterilization efficacy tests done. Eighty-five point six percent had themselves and their staff vaccinated against Hepatitis B while 72.8% had received the booster dose. Sixty-seven point six percent have been vaccinated against Hepatitis A. Fifty-three point four percent underwent regular health check-ups.

Conclusion: The survey displayed a varying percentage of Orthodontic practitioners who follow recommended centres of disease control and prevention (CDC) infection control and aseptic core orthodontic clinical procedures in Mumbai. There is a need to increase knowledge and awareness regarding general aseptic dental procedures and maintenance of equipment. This demands a more proactive attitude towards knowledge acquisition and implementation of aseptic procedures by the orthodontists of Mumbai in a dental office.

Keywords: Clinical aseptic procedures, Infection control, Orthodontic office.

How to cite this article: Fernandes FS, Mhatre AC, Joshi DD, Daga P, Kolge NE, Kate SR. Asepsis Measures Undertaken by Mumbai Based Orthodontists: A Survey Report. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):77-82.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Shatakshi Srivastava, Deepak Singhal, Shashidhar Acharya

Measurement of the Entire Spectrum of Dental Caries Using an Innovative Tool:CAST Index for Children Aged 11 to 14 Years of Udupi Taluk, India

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:83-87]



Introduction: One of the most prevalent known chronic diseases worldwide is dental caries. The caries assessment spectrum and treatment (CAST) index-Frencken JE et al. (2011) records all the clinical stages of caries spectrum under nine codes.

Materials and methods: The prevalence of the entire spectrum of caries was assessed among children aged 11 to 14 years, of Udupi Taluk, via a cross-sectional study. 800 children were examined under natural light, with sterilized plane mouth mirrors and periodontal probe of 0.5 mm ball tip. The most severe condition was considered for each participant and was recorded.

Results: Thirty-five percent had permanent teeth that were caries free. No children had preventive fillings in permanent teeth, and only 9% had restorations. Thirty percent of children had dental caries (codes 3-5) whereas 18% were suffering from after effects of severe untreated dental caries of permanent teeth (CAST code 6 or 7). Eight percent had at least one tooth removed due to caries.

Discussion: The reported findings were higher than studies done on adults in an Asian population using CAST index.

Conclusion: CAST index as a measurement tool, gives an accurate picture of the hidden iceberg of disease (dental caries) prevalent in Indian children.

Keywords: Adolescent, Child, Dental caries, Indices.

How to cite this article: Srivastava S, Singhal D, Acharya S. Measurement of the Entire Spectrum of Dental Caries Using an Innovative Tool: CAST Index for Children Aged 11 to 14 Years of Udupi Taluk, India. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):83-87.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Shraddha H Tamore, Sankalp D Bhandarkar, Suyog K Pradhan, Anuradha G Mohite, Nigel Tom Theethai

Antifungal Activity of Green Tea and Ginger Extract on heat Polymerised PolymethylmethacrylateDenture Base Resin Material

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:88-91]



Introduction: An increased prevalence of candidiasis is well documented and also Candida albicans has been shown to play an important role in oral candidiasis. The study aimed to compare the antifungal activity of extracts of green tea, ginger, a mixture of green tea and ginger against laboratory (ATCC 90028) and clinical strains of Candida albicans2. The study aimed to compare the antifungal activity of extracts of green tea, ginger, a mixture of green tea and ginger against laboratory (ATCC 90028) and clinical strains of Candida albicans.

Materials and methods: Green tea leaves and ginger were collected and sun-dried for 3 days, and ground to powder. The alcoholic extract was prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated extract was used to prepare serial dilutions into which incubated heat Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) specimens were immersed, which was used in testing antimicrobial efficacy. The study was carried out using well diffusion technique. The zone of inhibition was measured for each sample.

Results: Laboratory strains have shown about 16 to 18 mm of a zone of inhibition at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. For clinical strains, Ketoconazole and denture cleansing tablet have shown considerable inhibition as compared to green tea and ginger extract.

Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of such plant material by either incorporation, immersion or mouthwash is not going to reduce Candidal activity. There is a need to estimate the specific biological activity of medicinal plants for better application in medical field.

Keywords: Candida albicans, Clinical strains, Laboratory strains, PMMA.

How to cite this article: Tamore SH, Bhandarkar SD, Pradhan SK, Mohite AG, Theethai NT. Antifungal Activity of Green Tea and Ginger Extract on Heat Polymerised Polymethyl methacrylate Denture Base Resin Material. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):88-91.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Bhoomi A Parmar, Jyoti B Nadgere, Sabita M Ram, Naisargi P Shah

Spectrophotometric Analysis of Saliva for Metal Ion Release in Patients Prior to and After Cementation of Cobalt Chromium or Nickel-Chromium Alloy Crowns: An in Vivo Study

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:92-96]



Aim: This study aimed to spectrophotometrically analyze saliva for metal ion release in patients prior to and post cementation of either cobalt chromium or nickel-chromium alloy crowns-In vivo.

Materials and methods: Twenty participants selected, divided into two groups, each group having 10 participants, Group 1—Cobalt chromium crown fabrica ted and cemented and Group 2—Nickel-chromium crown fabricated and cemented. Saliva was collected before cementation of the crown and 1st day, 7th day and 15th day after cementation of the crown and subjected to spectrophotometric analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The statistical analysis showed that there were no traces found of cobalt and chromium ions in the sample of Group 1 participants before cementation of the crown. After cementation of cobalt chromium crown traces of cobalt and chromium were found on Days 1, 7 and 15. The traces were found on 1st day which increased on Day 7 and then a decline was observed in the number of ions on Day 15. In Group 2, no traces were found of nickel and chromium ions in samples of participants before cementation of the crown. After cementation of nickel chromium crown traces of nickel and chromium were found on Days 1, 7 and 15. The traces of ions were found on Day 1 which increased by Day 7 and then a decline was observed in the number of ions on day 15.

Conclusion: The results showed that compared to Group 1 the release of metal ions was found to be more in Group 2.

Keywords: Cobalt chromium, Metal ion release, Nickel-chro mium

How to cite this article: Parmar BA, Nadgere JB, Ram SM, Shah NP. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Saliva for Metal Ion Release in Patients Prior to and After Cementation of Cobalt Chromium or Nickel-Chromium Alloy Crowns: An in Vivo Study. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):92-96.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Prathamesh Fulsundar, Divij Joshi, Rachna Darak, Prachi Gaikwad, Qasim Mansoorian, Amol Mhatre

Homeopathic Arnica to Control Orthodontic Pain: A Substitute to Conventional NSAIDs

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:97-100]



With pain being the major drawback and reason for patient dropouts in orthodontic treatment, its management becomes an essential part of orthodontics. Patients commonly use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac-sodium, Acetylsalicylic acid, and Celecoxib to alleviate orthodontic pain. However, it has shown that the use of these drugs has a significant effect on the orthodontic movement of teeth.
Arnica montana is an accepted remedy in homeopathic medicine since concentrated extract of Arnica can be toxic, only homeopathic pellets which contain extremely diluted concentration of drug are considered appropriate for ingestion.
Arnica has shown efficiency in treating inflammation and associated pain. It has a wide scope in the field of dentistry and can be used as an alternative to NSAIDs in order to control intra-operative and post-operative pain without hampering orthodontic tooth movement. Arnica 30° C can be used for the treatment of dental pain.

Keywords: Homeopathic Arnica, NSAIDs, Orthodontics, Pain control, Tooth movement.

How to cite this article: Fulsundar P, Joshi D, Darak R, Gaikwad P, Mansoorian Q, Mhatre A. Homeopathic Arnica to Control Orthodontic Pain: A Substitute to Conventional NSAIDs. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):97-100.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Shraddha S Walekar, Shrikant R Sonune, Janaki S Iyer, Rashmi Hosalkar, Yogita Murudkar

Immunohistochemical Markers in Benign Odontogenic Tumors

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:101-105]



Odontogenic tumours includes broad spectrum of lesions derived from specialized dental tissues. Neoplasms and tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus may be composed only of epithelial tissue or epithelial tissue associated with odontogenic ectomesenchyme. They constitute abortive attempt at odontogenesis. Odontogenic tumors can be intraosseous or extraosseous with varying clinical and radiographic features. Odontogenic tumours are associated with molecular and genetic alterations. This review presents outline of molecular and genetic alterations associated with nature and growth of benign odontogenic tumours.

Key words: Ameloblastoma, Amelogenin, Cytokeratin, Immunohistochemical markers, Odontogenic tumors

How to cite this article: Walekar SS, Sonune SR, Iyer JS, Hosalkar R, Murudkar Y. Immunohistochemical Markers in Benign Odontogenic Tumors. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):101- 105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
Beble Gorakh D, Margasahayam Sumanthini V, Shenoy Vanitha U, Patil Anuradha B

The Paradox of a Radiculous Maxillary Second Premolar: A Case Report

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:106-111]



The major causes for persistent intracanal infection are unfilled canals and incomplete obturation resulting in endodontic failure. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and accurate interpretation of preoperative radiographs are essential aspects of endodontic therapy. Quite often the third root or canal is missed as it is not visible under normal vision. Three rooted maxillary premolars have similar root canal morphology as that of maxillary molars and are described as ’Radiculous’. According to Vertucci, the incidence of three canals in maxillary second premolar is 0.3 to 2%. This case report describes the clinical diagnosis and endodontic retreatment of radiculous maxillary second premolar, drawing particular attention to access refinements aided by ultrasonics and dental operating microscope.

Key-words: Magnification, Radiculous, Retreatment, Ultrasonics

How to cite this article: Gorakh BD, Sumanthini MV, Shenoy VU, Anuradha PB. The Paradox of a Radiculous Maxillary Second Premolar: A Case Report. J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):106-111.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CLINICAL INNOVATION
Neeraj E Kolge, Vivek J Patni, Ravindranath VK, Divij Joshi, Amol Mhatre, Swapnagandha R Kate

Interproximal Reduction: A Twin Helix Device

[Year:2018] [Month:May-August] [Volumn:8 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:112-114]



Introduction: Interproximal enamel reduction dates back to 1944 when it was first advocated for correcting lack of tooth size harmony by stripping the proximal surfaces of the mandibular anterior segment. Despite convincing results, interproximal reduction (IPR) only became popular after the advent of bonding, as full-arch banding done previously completely deferred the use of this method for tooth material reduction. With the current status and ongoing development of new techniques of IPR, use of this method as a mean of gaining space has increased exponentially over the last three decades.

Procedure: A 12-inch length of 0.036" diameter wire is used for fabrication of the assembly. Helices of 2.5 mm diameter with two coils and the other according to finger grip are fabricated, and U-loops are prepared at the free ends for engaging the proximal strips. This assembly can be placed intraorally in the interdental region of our choice to cut the tooth material.

Conclusion: This assembly provides an effective grip rather than using hand held strips. It is also accessible in both anterior and posterior regions with a minimum requirement of armamentarium and can be sterilized and reused.

Keyword: Crowding, IPR, Slenderization, Twin Helix,

How to cite this article: Kolge NE, Patni VJ, Ravindranath VK, Joshi D, Mhatre A, Kate SR. Interproximal Reduction: A Twin Helix Device J Contemp Dent 2018;8(2):112-114.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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